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Criminal Justice

Charles Seale Hayne Library - supporting your learning

Please always follow any detailed guidance in your module handbook on the VLE.

Basically, when you quote or paraphrase someone else you must 'inform' the reader of your work by using an 'in-text' brief citation and then give the full details of the reference at the end of your work. The Harvard system uses the author(s) surnames and year 'in-text' and lists all references in alphabetic order by first author.
{The Vancouver system uses a progressive, superscript, number 'in-text' and lists all references in numeric order (any quotes from the same source are given the same number as first occurrence) - see the Referencing guide for more information on this style here.}
Harvard In-Text

You quote up to three author's and the year. If there are more than three authors then you give only the first author and use et al (in italics) before the year. Examples:

  • (Jacobs, 2012)
  • (Jacobs and Jones, 2015)
  • (Jacobs, Jones and Jones, 2015)
  • (Jacobs et al, 2016)

Harvard References
List your references alphabetically (A - Z) by first author surname. If two papers are by the same author or authors, then use the year to determine a sub-order, giving the oldest first. If two papers have exactly the same authors and year, then you will need to assign one as 'a' (eg: Jacobs, 2012a) and the other as 'b' (eg: Jacobs, 2012b). (Note: you will need to use the year plus letter at the appropriate points 'in-text').
The order of information for each reference is:
Author(s) - Surname, initial(s) with full stops. Separate authors with a comma. Quote up to 6 authors, then use et al. to indicate more than 6 authors.
Year of publication in round brackets. NB: no full stop after closing bracket.
Title of the article in single quotation marks, followed by a comma.
Title of journal in italics. This should be in full (not abbreviations) and all major words should be capitalised, followed by a comma.
Volume (and part number in brackets, if known), followed by a comma.
Pages, preceded by pp. (give first and last pages in full, followed by a full stop.
The following can be added if you accessed the article online:
Online: add Online in square brackets, followed by a full stop.
Available at: follow [Online]. with the words Available at, then colon, then the URL location (no end of section punctuation).
Accessed: add a space after the URL then type (Accessed: and add the date you accessed the content. Close the brackets and finish with a full stop.
Example: Jacobs, P., Jones, T. and Jones, D. (2015) 'The basic anatomy of the Knee'. Anatomy in Education, 19(2), pp. 121-126 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 8th October 2016).